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The Teutonic Order used Königsberg to fortify their conquests in Samland and as a base for campaigns against pagan Lithuania.

Under siege during the Prussian uprisings in —63, Königsberg Castle was relieved by the Master of the Livonian Order. This new settlement, Altstadt , received Culm rights in Löbenicht , a new town directly east of Altstadt between the Pregel and the Schlossteich , received its own rights in Medieval Königsberg's third town was Kneiphof , which received town rights in and was located on an island of the same name in the Pregel south of Altstadt.

Within the state of the Teutonic Order , Königsberg was the residence of the marshal, one of the chief administrators of the military order.

Adalbert of Prague became the main patron saint of Königsberg Cathedral , a landmark of the city located in Kneiphof. Königsberg joined the Hanseatic League in and developed into an important port for the south-eastern Baltic region, trading goods throughout Prussia, the Kingdom of Poland , and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

The chronicler Peter of Dusburg probably wrote his Chronicon terrae Prussiae in Königsberg from — Although the knights suffered a crippling defeat in the Battle of Grunwald Tannenberg , Königsberg remained under the control of the Teutonic Knights throughout the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War.

While Königsberg's three towns initially joined the rebellion, Altstadt and Löbenicht soon rejoined the Teutonic Knights and defeated Kneiphof in Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen fled from the crusaders' capital at Castle Marienburg to Königsberg in ; the city's magistrate presented Erlichshausen with a barrel of beer out of compassion.

While the Prussian estates quickly allied with the duke, the Prussian peasantry would only swear allegiance to Albert in person at Königsberg, seeking the duke's support against oppressive nobility.

After convincing the rebels to lay down their arms, Albert had several of their leaders executed. Königsberg, the capital, became one of the biggest cities and ports of ducal Prussia, having considerable autonomy, a separate parliament and currency.

While German served as the fief's official language, the city served as a vibrant center of publishing in both the Polish and Lithuanian Languages.

The city flourished through the export of wheat , timber , hemp , and furs , [20] as well as pitch , tar , and ash. The university had a profound impact on the development of Lithuanian culture, and several important Lithuanian writers attended the Albertina.

The university was also the preferred educational institution of the Baltic German nobility. The capable Duke Albert was succeeded by his feeble minded son, Albert Frederick.

In the Treaty of Wehlau in , however, he negotiated the release of Prussia from Polish sovereignty in return for an alliance with Poland.

In Frederick William informed the Prussian diet that he possessed jus supremi et absoluti domini , and that the Prussian Landtag could convene with his permission.

The Prussian estates which swore fealty to Frederick William in Königsberg on 18 October [26] refused the elector's requests for military funding, and Colonel Christian Ludwig von Kalckstein sought assistance from neighbouring Poland.

After the elector's agents had abducted Kalckstein, he was executed in The Prussian estates' submission to Frederick William followed; in and the elector received taxes not granted by the estates and Königsberg received a garrison without the estates' consent.

Königsberg long remained a centre of Lutheran resistance to Calvinism within Brandenburg-Prussia ; Frederick William forced the city to accept Calvinist citizens and property-holders in Since "Kingdom of Prussia" was increasingly used to designate all of the Hohenzollern lands, former ducal Prussia became known as the Province of Prussia — , with Königsberg as its capital.

However, Berlin and Potsdam in Brandenburg were the main residences of the Prussian kings. The city was wracked by plague and other illnesses from September to April , losing 9, people, or roughly a quarter of its populace.

Suburbs that subsequently were annexed to Königsberg include Sackheim, Rossgarten, and Tragheim. With the end of the Seven Years' War the Russian army abandoned the town in After the First Partition of Poland in , Königsberg became the capital of the province of East Prussia in , which replaced the Province of Prussia in By the city was approximately five miles 8.

In order to foster liberalism and nationalism among the Prussian middle class, the "League of Virtue" was founded in Königsberg in April The French forced its dissolution in December , but its ideals were continued by the Turnbewegung of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in Berlin.

In Königsberg had a population of 63, It was also the seat of the Regierungsbezirk Königsberg , an administrative subdivision.

Led by the provincial president Theodor von Schön and the Königsberger Volkszeitung newspaper, Königsberg was a stronghold of liberalism against the conservative government of King Frederick William IV.

A sophisticated for its time series of fortifications around the city that included fifteen forts was completed in In the railway connecting Berlin with St.

Petersburg was completed and increased Königsberg's commerce. Extensive electric tramways were in operation by ; and regular steamers plied to Memel , Tapiau and Labiau , Cranz , Tilsit, and Danzig.

The completion of a canal to Pillau in increased the trade of Russian grain in Königsberg, but, like much of eastern Germany, the city's economy was generally in decline.

Königsberg and East Prussia , however, were separated from the rest of Weimar Germany by the creation of the Polish Corridor. In the s Nazis confiscated Jewish shops and, as in the rest of Germany, a public book burning was organised, accompanied by anti-Semitic speeches in May at the Trommelplatz square.

Street names and monuments of Jewish origin were removed, and signs such as "Jews are not welcomed in hotels" started appearing.

As part of the state-wide "aryanisation" of the civil service Jewish academics were ejected from the university.

In the local paramilitary SA had already started to terrorise their political opponents. In July Adolf Hitler made a speech in the city, gathering 25, supporters.

The Otto-Braun-House was requisitioned and became the headquarters of the SA, which used the house to imprison and torture opponents.

Walter Schütz , a communist member of the Reichstag , was murdered here. Under Nazi rule, the Polish and Jewish minorities were classified as Untermensch and persecuted by the authorities.

The city's Jewish population shrank from 3, in to 2, in October The New Synagogue of Königsberg , constructed in , was destroyed during Kristallnacht 9 November ; Jews soon fled the city.

In September , with the German invasion against Poland under way, the Polish consulate in Königsberg was attacked which constituted a violation of international law , its workers arrested and sent to concentration camps where several of them died.

In September 69, slave labourers were registered in the city not counting prisoners of war , with most of them working on the outskirts; within the city were 15, slave labourers.

Ordered to paint German ships with toxic paints and chemicals, they were neither given gas-masks nor was there any ventilation in facilities where they worked, supposedly in order to expedite construction, while the substances evaporated in temperatures as low as 40 Celsius.

As a result, there were cases of sudden illness or death during the work. In , Königsberg suffered heavy damage from British bombing attacks and burned for several days.

In der Heraldik setzt die rechte Seite das positiver Eingeschätzte. Der Adler schaute auf dem Siegel immer nach rechts. Die Blickrichtung wird in der Blasonierung zwar nicht spezifiziert, doch weil in der Heraldik die Blickrichtung nach rechts die unmarkierte ist, und der Olivenzweig für die rechte Seite bestimmt wurde, kann man annehmen, dass es ursprünglich so gemeint war.

Präsident Truman änderte die Blickrichtung am Oberhalb des Adlers sind 13 pentagrammartige Sterne im goldenen Kranz in Form eines Hexagramms auf hellblauem Grund angeordnet.

Diesem Neubeginn nickt das Auge der Vorsehung , welches zusammen mit dem lateinischen Schriftzug Annuit coeptis , über der Pyramide prangt, gnädig zu.

Es wurde ursprünglich der christlichen Ikonographie entlehnt, findet sich aber ebenso unter den Symbolen der Freimaurerei.

Die Pyramide kann als Anspielung auf den Auszug aus Ägypten verstanden werden, wie er im 2. Buch Mose der Bibel erzählt wird.

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Der Zusammenhang der vierten Ekloge wurde von den Kirchenvätern als Weissagung der Geburt Christi und des mit ihr beginnenden neuen Zeitalters interpretiert.

Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt vor allem die Anverwandlung von Vergils Ekloge eine komplexe intellektuelle Provokation mit religiösen Untertönen und ein Instrument nationaler Sinnstiftung dar: Retrieved 18 April A Life of Contrasts.

Retrieved 22 July Archived from the original on 28 March Retrieved 20 April The London Gazette Supplement. Retrieved 15 June National Museum of Wales.

Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 17 December Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 23 September Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 20 June National Gallery of Australia.

Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 4 December Gifts to the Queen". Retrieved 20 February Sixty years of royal tours".

Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 12 February Vanier, Soldier, Diplomat, Governor General: William Collins, Sons and Co.

Retrieved 6 March House of Lords Library. Retrieved 5 June Retrieved 21 June The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 March Maclean's Special Commemorative Edition: Celebrating 60 Remarkable years ed.

Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 8 December Queen's dismay at Blair legacy". Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 7 July The Queen ends visit with traditional 'Aussie barbie ' ".

Retrieved 30 October Office of the Governor General of Canada. The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Beacons. Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 23 October Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 20 November Office of the Secretary to the Governor General.

Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 13 October The Queen becomes the world's oldest living Head of State following Mugabe resignation".

Retrieved 21 November Queen will not celebrate 65th anniversary but instead sit in 'quiet contemplation' remembering father's death".

Retrieved 3 February The New York Times. Retrieved 4 August Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 17 March For example after the Scottish independence referendum, , the then Prime Minister, David Cameron , claimed that Elizabeth was pleased with the outcome Dominiczak, Peter 24 September I'm extremely sorry for saying Queen 'purred' over Scottish Independence vote".

Retrieved 4 February Check date values in: Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 5 September Archived from the original PDF on 11 May Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 26 November Damien Hirst's only portrait of the Queen found in government archives".

Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 6 November Retrieved 25 December Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 19 August Retrieved 29 March Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 24 August Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.

Archived from the original on 6 November Royal Heraldry Society of Canada. Archived from the original on 30 January Retrieved 13 March Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe 2nd ed.

Fifty Years the Queen. Her Life in Our Times. Portrait of a Marriage. The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Pointing The Way — London: Elizabeth II and Her People.

King George the Fifth: His Life and Reign. Royals and the Reich: Elizabeth II and the Monarchy. The House of Windsor. The Downing Street Years.

Debrett's Kings and Queens of Britain. The Journals of Woodrow Wyatt: This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Elizabeth II " dated 23 June , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.

Australia official openings Canada. State visit to Ireland. Higgins President Xi Jinping. A Year in the Life of the Queen Monarchy: A Family Portrait The Coronation God Save the Queen Her Majesty.

Machin series list Wilding series Castle series Canadian domestic rate stamp Country definitives. Links to related articles.

Jahrhundert gab es in den 13 englischen Kolonien in Amerika verschiedene Revolutionsflaggen als Symbol der Zusammengehörigkeit. Auch haben viele der einzelnen Staaten wie auch Landkreise und Städte Wappen angenommen und benutzen sie auch heute noch. Zwischen und traten Vermont und Kentucky der Union bei, sodass die Flagge nun 15 Sterne und 15 Streifen zeigte, die in Reihen angeordnet waren. Die Zahl Dreizehn erscheint im Wappen mehrfach, um die 13 Gründungsstaaten zu symbolisieren:. September um Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Zur Zeit der Unabhängigkeitsbewegungen und -unruhen im späten Im Jahr beschloss der Kongress , die Zahl der Streifen auf 13 zu begrenzen, dagegen aber für jeden neu hinzugekommenen Bundesstaat am 4. Mit dieser Flagge wurde auch erstmals die Anordnung der Sterne eindeutig definiert. Deutscher Genealogentag in Melle. Als Textbestandteile schlug er die Überschrift Deo favente lat. Wappen der Staaten von: Sie werden vielleicht sagen: November Montana 8. Zudem soll die Einheit der Staaten durch dreizehn Sterne repräsentiert werden, die sich in einem blauen Feld befinden. Auch die dreidimensionale Darstellung der Pyramide fällt aus dem Rahmen des heraldisch Üblichen. Juegos de tragamonedas casino 77 verschiedene Flaggen mit jeweils unterschiedlicher Anordnung der Sterne im linken oberen Eck auf, wie z. Buch Mose der Bibel erzählt wird. Januar und Arizonas am Es wurde ursprünglich der christlichen Ikonographie entlehnt, findet sich aber ebenso unter den Symbolen der Freimaurerei. Mit Beste Spielothek in Bredbeck finden Flagge wurde auch erstmals die Anordnung der Sterne eindeutig definiert. Andere Revolutionsflaggen waren mit dem Spruch Don't tread on me wörtlich: Das Beste Spielothek in Neuhöfe finden auffälligste Muster enthielt der Entwurf der 38 Star Flag vonbei dem ein zentraler Stern für Colorado von zwei Ringen aus Sternen umgeben war. Allerdings wurde das Siegel der USA bild casino, d. Dezember Maine Vor allem im

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Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 8 December Queen's dismay at Blair legacy". Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 7 July The Queen ends visit with traditional 'Aussie barbie ' ".

Retrieved 30 October Office of the Governor General of Canada. The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Beacons. Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 23 October Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 20 November Office of the Secretary to the Governor General.

Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 13 October The Queen becomes the world's oldest living Head of State following Mugabe resignation".

Retrieved 21 November Queen will not celebrate 65th anniversary but instead sit in 'quiet contemplation' remembering father's death".

Retrieved 3 February The New York Times. Retrieved 4 August Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 17 March For example after the Scottish independence referendum, , the then Prime Minister, David Cameron , claimed that Elizabeth was pleased with the outcome Dominiczak, Peter 24 September I'm extremely sorry for saying Queen 'purred' over Scottish Independence vote".

Retrieved 4 February Check date values in: Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 5 September Archived from the original PDF on 11 May Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 26 November Damien Hirst's only portrait of the Queen found in government archives".

Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 6 November Retrieved 25 December Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 19 August Retrieved 29 March Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 24 August Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.

Archived from the original on 6 November Royal Heraldry Society of Canada. Archived from the original on 30 January Retrieved 13 March Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe 2nd ed.

Fifty Years the Queen. Her Life in Our Times. Portrait of a Marriage. The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Pointing The Way — London: Elizabeth II and Her People.

King George the Fifth: His Life and Reign. Royals and the Reich: Elizabeth II and the Monarchy. The House of Windsor. The Downing Street Years.

Debrett's Kings and Queens of Britain. The Journals of Woodrow Wyatt: This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Elizabeth II " dated 23 June , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.

Australia official openings Canada. State visit to Ireland. Higgins President Xi Jinping. A Year in the Life of the Queen Monarchy: A Family Portrait The Coronation God Save the Queen Her Majesty.

Machin series list Wilding series Castle series Canadian domestic rate stamp Country definitives. Links to related articles. Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from British monarchs after the Acts of Union Current members of the Order of the Garter.

The Queen The Prince of Wales. Current monarchs of sovereign states. The generations indicate descent from George I , who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family.

Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used.

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Charles, Prince of Wales. Full name Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor [1]. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Prince William, Duke of Cambridge.

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George VI of the United Kingdom. Francis, Duke of Teck. Princess Mary of Teck. Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

Find out more on Wikipedia's Sister projects. Queen of the United Kingdom 6 February — present. Queen of Australia 6 February — present. Queen of Canada 6 February — present.

Queen of New Zealand 6 February — present. Queen of Ceylon 6 February — 22 May Queen of Pakistan 6 February — 23 March Järnvägsnätet är väl utbyggt i Polen.

Detta har medfört att dagens Polen är ett väldigt homogent land; av Polens befolkning anser sig 96,74 procent vara polacker.

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Polen tilldelades tillsammans med Ukraina arrangörskapet av Europamästerskapet i fotboll För andra betydelser, se Polen olika betydelser. Polens gränser efter Polen under andra världskriget.

Detta avsnitt är en sammanfattning av Folkrepubliken Polen och Polen efter Lista över flygplatser i Polen.

Lista över städer i Polen. Europas länder Europeiska unionens medlemsstater Polen. Visningar Visa Redigera Redigera wikitext Visa historik.

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Wikipedias text är tillgänglig under licensen Creative Commons Erkännande-dela-lika 3. Huvudstad och största stad.

Denna artikel är en del av en serie. The Potsdam Agreement placed it provisionally under Soviet administration, but did not mention an explicit right of annexation.

In the Final Settlement treaty of , Germany renounced all claim to it, but without specifically transferring its former title to any other party.

Königsberg was preceded by a Sambian , or Old Prussian , fort known as Twangste Tuwangste , Tvankste , meaning Oak Forest, [4] as well as several Old Prussian settlements, including the fishing village and port Lipnick , and the farming villages Sakkeim and Trakkeim.

During the conquest of the Prussian Sambians by the Teutonic Knights in , Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress known as Conigsberg.

The Teutonic Order used Königsberg to fortify their conquests in Samland and as a base for campaigns against pagan Lithuania.

Under siege during the Prussian uprisings in —63, Königsberg Castle was relieved by the Master of the Livonian Order. This new settlement, Altstadt , received Culm rights in Löbenicht , a new town directly east of Altstadt between the Pregel and the Schlossteich , received its own rights in Medieval Königsberg's third town was Kneiphof , which received town rights in and was located on an island of the same name in the Pregel south of Altstadt.

Within the state of the Teutonic Order , Königsberg was the residence of the marshal, one of the chief administrators of the military order.

Adalbert of Prague became the main patron saint of Königsberg Cathedral , a landmark of the city located in Kneiphof. Königsberg joined the Hanseatic League in and developed into an important port for the south-eastern Baltic region, trading goods throughout Prussia, the Kingdom of Poland , and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

The chronicler Peter of Dusburg probably wrote his Chronicon terrae Prussiae in Königsberg from — Although the knights suffered a crippling defeat in the Battle of Grunwald Tannenberg , Königsberg remained under the control of the Teutonic Knights throughout the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War.

While Königsberg's three towns initially joined the rebellion, Altstadt and Löbenicht soon rejoined the Teutonic Knights and defeated Kneiphof in Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen fled from the crusaders' capital at Castle Marienburg to Königsberg in ; the city's magistrate presented Erlichshausen with a barrel of beer out of compassion.

While the Prussian estates quickly allied with the duke, the Prussian peasantry would only swear allegiance to Albert in person at Königsberg, seeking the duke's support against oppressive nobility.

After convincing the rebels to lay down their arms, Albert had several of their leaders executed. Königsberg, the capital, became one of the biggest cities and ports of ducal Prussia, having considerable autonomy, a separate parliament and currency.

While German served as the fief's official language, the city served as a vibrant center of publishing in both the Polish and Lithuanian Languages.

The city flourished through the export of wheat , timber , hemp , and furs , [20] as well as pitch , tar , and ash. The university had a profound impact on the development of Lithuanian culture, and several important Lithuanian writers attended the Albertina.

The university was also the preferred educational institution of the Baltic German nobility. The capable Duke Albert was succeeded by his feeble minded son, Albert Frederick.

In the Treaty of Wehlau in , however, he negotiated the release of Prussia from Polish sovereignty in return for an alliance with Poland.

In Frederick William informed the Prussian diet that he possessed jus supremi et absoluti domini , and that the Prussian Landtag could convene with his permission.

The Prussian estates which swore fealty to Frederick William in Königsberg on 18 October [26] refused the elector's requests for military funding, and Colonel Christian Ludwig von Kalckstein sought assistance from neighbouring Poland.

After the elector's agents had abducted Kalckstein, he was executed in The Prussian estates' submission to Frederick William followed; in and the elector received taxes not granted by the estates and Königsberg received a garrison without the estates' consent.

Königsberg long remained a centre of Lutheran resistance to Calvinism within Brandenburg-Prussia ; Frederick William forced the city to accept Calvinist citizens and property-holders in Since "Kingdom of Prussia" was increasingly used to designate all of the Hohenzollern lands, former ducal Prussia became known as the Province of Prussia — , with Königsberg as its capital.

However, Berlin and Potsdam in Brandenburg were the main residences of the Prussian kings. The city was wracked by plague and other illnesses from September to April , losing 9, people, or roughly a quarter of its populace.

Suburbs that subsequently were annexed to Königsberg include Sackheim, Rossgarten, and Tragheim. With the end of the Seven Years' War the Russian army abandoned the town in After the First Partition of Poland in , Königsberg became the capital of the province of East Prussia in , which replaced the Province of Prussia in By the city was approximately five miles 8.

In order to foster liberalism and nationalism among the Prussian middle class, the "League of Virtue" was founded in Königsberg in April The French forced its dissolution in December , but its ideals were continued by the Turnbewegung of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in Berlin.

In Königsberg had a population of 63, It was also the seat of the Regierungsbezirk Königsberg , an administrative subdivision. Led by the provincial president Theodor von Schön and the Königsberger Volkszeitung newspaper, Königsberg was a stronghold of liberalism against the conservative government of King Frederick William IV.

A sophisticated for its time series of fortifications around the city that included fifteen forts was completed in In the railway connecting Berlin with St.

Petersburg was completed and increased Königsberg's commerce. Extensive electric tramways were in operation by ; and regular steamers plied to Memel , Tapiau and Labiau , Cranz , Tilsit, and Danzig.

The completion of a canal to Pillau in increased the trade of Russian grain in Königsberg, but, like much of eastern Germany, the city's economy was generally in decline.

Königsberg and East Prussia , however, were separated from the rest of Weimar Germany by the creation of the Polish Corridor. In the s Nazis confiscated Jewish shops and, as in the rest of Germany, a public book burning was organised, accompanied by anti-Semitic speeches in May at the Trommelplatz square.

Street names and monuments of Jewish origin were removed, and signs such as "Jews are not welcomed in hotels" started appearing.

As part of the state-wide "aryanisation" of the civil service Jewish academics were ejected from the university.

In the local paramilitary SA had already started to terrorise their political opponents. In July Adolf Hitler made a speech in the city, gathering 25, supporters.

The Otto-Braun-House was requisitioned and became the headquarters of the SA, which used the house to imprison and torture opponents.

Walter Schütz , a communist member of the Reichstag , was murdered here. Under Nazi rule, the Polish and Jewish minorities were classified as Untermensch and persecuted by the authorities.

The city's Jewish population shrank from 3, in to 2, in October The New Synagogue of Königsberg , constructed in , was destroyed during Kristallnacht 9 November ; Jews soon fled the city.

In September , with the German invasion against Poland under way, the Polish consulate in Königsberg was attacked which constituted a violation of international law , its workers arrested and sent to concentration camps where several of them died.

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